Document ID

A document ID in SharePoint 2010 is a pluggable identifier for a document or a document set (described later). It also provides a static URL or a permalink that opens the document or document set associated with the ID, regardless of the location of the document. Thus, you can reference documents as permalinks??links that don’t change or break as the location of the document changes. And also, the format and generation logic of the generated document IDs is customizable. (Sahil Malik)

Document ID service is a Site Collection feature. Go to Site Actions à Site Settings à Site Collection Features to activate the Document ID service.

After that, upload a document to a document library. View the document property and you will see the Document ID.

Click on the Documen ID and you will get the permanent URL of the document, such as:
http://mysharepointinstance/sites/mysite/_layouts/DocIdRedir.aspx?ID=X56ERZA752FZ-1-1

This link redirects you to the actual file path in the Sharepoint web server.

To configure the Document ID (such as the prefix), go to Site Actions à Site Settings à Document ID Settings.

Different site collections can use different Document ID prefix to avoid conflict.

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